Blue cover v2

Ages and Stages

 

0 - 1 years

1 - 2 years

2 - 3 years

3 - 4 years

4 - 5 years

Communication Checklists

 

0 - 1 years

What would you expect to see at this age? 

Social Communication

  • Lots of eye contact (6 weeks)
  • Big happy smiles (6-8 weeks)
  • Turn taking interaction of making and breaking eye contact (3 months)
  • The child might interact using sounds and gestures, including initiating conversation, turn-taking and disengagement (3 months)
  • Responds to social games such as peek-a-boo (6 months)

Receptive Communication (Understanding)

  • Turns head when hears voice (3 months)
  • Responds to own name by turning head (4-6 months)
  • Responds to ‘no’ (5 months)
  • Responds to music with body movements (11 months)
  • Understands up to 10 words (12 months)

Expressive Communication (Producing) 

  • Cries, grunts and burps (birth-2 months)
  • Grunts and sighs when playing or during an activity (birth-2 months)
  • Cooing or gooing sounds (2 - 4 months)
  • Extreme variation in loudness and pitch (e.g. squeals, yells)  (4-6 months)
  • Babble (e.g. ba-ba-ba, ba-de-goo) (6-10 months)
  • Longer babbled phrases with (10 months +)
  • Gestures (e.g. showing, reaching, giving, pointing)

Red Flags

  • No babbling (e.g. 'ba-ba-ba' 'ba-de-goo') by 12 months
  • No gesturing (e.g. point, waving, showing, giving) by 12 months
  • Failure to coordinate gaze with parent or adult and to a third object or event (otherwise known as 'joint attention') by 18 months

Checklist

Please feel free to print off the following checklist and fill it out during observations of the particular child of interest. Please provide examples where you can, however this is not required. Adding examples can help when speaking to parents or speech pathologists!

All of these behaviours should be observed in a 1 year old child.

Communication Checklist 0 - 1

Make sure to check out our 'Practical Tips' and 'Who Can Help' tabs! 

 

1 - 2 years

What would you expect to see at this age?

Social Communication

  • Points towards items of interest and back to the adult to show and share the enjoyment
  • Communicates primarily with words supported by other means including gestures and pointing
  • Able to shift their attention from a toy to a person when playing
  • Begins to show an awareness of their own feelings and the feelings of others

Receptive Communication (Understanding)

  • Follows simple commands e.g. “get ball” (without gesture) (12 months)
  • Identifies one body part (12 months)
  • Selects correct object between two choices  (12 months)
  • Understands up to 10 words (12 months) or 50 words (24 months)
  • Responds to some questions e.g. “what doing?” “where?” (18 to 24 months)
  • Follows one stage commands with two to three parts e.g. “throw the car” (18 months) or “give me the car and the spoon” (24 months)
  • Identifies three to four body parts (18-24 months)
  • Understands prepositions in, on (24 months)

Expressive Communication (Producing) 

  • Produces 5 or more words (12 to 14 months)
  • Produces true words during play (12 months) (note: a 'true' word is a word that child uses consistently and correctly)
  • Mixes words with jargon (12 months) (note: jargon is unintelligible strings of sound that mimic adult speech. The child may sound like they're having a conversation but they're not using actual words!)
  • Uses voice and gesture to get objects (12 – 14 months)
  • Imitates animal noises (12 months)
  • Produces 10 to 20 words (18 months)
  • Beginning to combine words into two-word utterances, for example "car go" (18 months)
  • Produces unintelligible strings of sound that mimic adult speech, otherwise known as 'jargon' (18 months)
  • Imitates 2- and 3-word sentences (18 months)
  • Names one picture in book and some body parts (18 months)
  • Uses 50 to 200 words (24 months)
  • Uses two- and three-word combinations to express a variety of phrases e.g. 'red car', 'want cup' (24 months)
  • Says “no” (24 months)
  • Uses some pronouns (but not necessarily correctly) (24 months)
  • Able to be understood by some (25%) of listeners at 12 months, and by most (65%) of listeners at 24 months

  •  

Red Flags

  • Has never produced any two-word utterances, for example "dog bark" (not even through imitation)
  • Doesn’t frequently imitate new words or phrases heard
  • Doesn’t follow simple directions such as “come to mummy”
  • Shows considerable frustration expressing needs
  • Doesn’t effectively use gestures to communicate
  • Doesn’t engage in pretend play e.g. feeding teddy

Checklist

Please feel free to print off the following checklist and fill it out during observations of the particular child of interest. Please provide examples where you can, however this is not required. Adding examples can help when speaking to parents or speech pathologists!

All of these behaviours should be observed in a child at 2 years of age.

Communication Checklist 1 - 2

Make sure to check out our 'Practical Tips' and 'Who Can Help' tabs! 

 

2 - 3 years

What would you expect to see at this age?

Social Communication

  • Plays in groups and talks while playing
  • Selects who they want to play with
  • Shares toys (for short periods)
  • Takes turns during play
  • Insists on being in the limelight

Receptive Communication (Understanding) 

  • Follows two stage commands e.g. “Give me the spoon and push the car.”
  • Understands some simple wh-questions e.g. who, what, where
  • Understands the concepts of 'same' and 'different'
  • Starting to categorise in basic groups (e.g. toys, colours, animals)
  • Recognises basic colours

Expressive Communication (Producing) 

  • Can produce 900 –1,200 words
  • Uses multi-word utterances (3 words or more). For example "big dog run"
  • Asks what, where and who questions
  • Uses past tense 'ed' on all words even if it is not grammatically correct (e.g., “goed” or "falled')

Narrative

A narrative is a story that is told is chronological order, and involves a setting, characters, an event and an ending. At this age, narratives should involve:

  • Labelling events around a central theme / character / setting.
  • There is no plot, but there is a description of what the character has done.
  • Sequences of information, however, one event does not necessarily follow temporally or causally from another.

An example of what you might see from a child at this age:

“Little boy. Tree, frog. Tree, person, dog, bucket, and tree that he climbing on, bucket and dog. They fell off. Then they ran down the hill and trip down. And then the frog was happy. And then the dog was swimming. Then there was a dog happy. Then there’s a frog sitting on the tree. So they went to the tree that fall into the water where the frog is. And then the boy caught the dog. Look it, the dog’s in the net! And then the dog go.” (Paul & Norbury, 2012, p 405)

Speech

  • Able to say a range of speech sounds when talking (e.g. p, b, m, t, d, n, h, w) (24 months)
  • Able to say even more sounds (e.g. k, g, f, s, ng) (3 years)
  • Able to be understood by unfamiliar listeners 75% of the time (3 years)

Red Flags

  • Uses less than 50 words
  • Doesn’t produce two word utterances frequently
  • Doesn’t ask questions
  • Has a difficult time being understood by strangers
  • Doesn’t respond to ‘yes’ / ‘no’ questions
  • Doesn’t combine several actions during play
  • Shows frustration related to communication

Checklist

Please feel free to print off the following checklist and fill it out during observations of the particular child of interest. Please provide examples where you can, however this is not required. Adding examples can help when speaking to parents or speech pathologists!

All of these behaviours should be observed in a child at 3 years of age.

Communication Checklist 2 - 3

Make sure to check out our 'Practical Tips' and 'Who Can Help' tabs! 

 

3 - 4 years

What would you expect to see at this age?

Social Communication

  • Plays and cooperates with others
  • Role-plays (uses different voices to represent different people)

Receptive Communication (Understanding) 

  • Understands approximately 5,600 words
  • Responds correctly to most questions about daily activities
  • Uses the ordering of a sentence to help understand a message
  • Understands most wh- questions, including those about a story they have heard recently
  • Understand some numbers
  • Shows awareness that some words start or finish with the same sounds
  • Begins to understand simple jokes

Expressive Communication (Producing) 

  • Produces 1,500 – 1,600 words
  • Names primary colours
  • Counts to five
  • Uses some personal pronouns accurately (I, you, she, it)
  • Uses negative and question forms correctly, e.g. "don't you know?"
  • Asks more questions using words like “what”, “where” and “why”
  • Uses words like “and”, “but” and “because” to make longer sentences
  • More aware of what information to include in conversations i.e., the amount of information the listener needs, mentions the most important information first
  • Able to describe recent events such as morning routine

Speech

  • Able to be understood 100% of the time by everyone
  • Says most sounds correctly (e.g., m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k, g, ng, f, y, s, z, ch, j, sh, l) (4 years)
  • Uses many consonant clusters, which are combinations of two or more sounds (e.g., tw, sp, gl). Children may use clusters at the start (e.g., blue) or end of words (e.g., hand)
  • Says most vowel sounds in words correctly (e.g., ay, oh, ee)

Red Flags

  • Doesn’t use three-to-four word phrases
  • Doesn’t use grammatical suffixes to form common plural forms (-s, -es), past tense (-ed), and present progressive forms (-ing)
  • Frequently acts if doesn’t understand what is said
  • Repeats or echoes everything heard, but with little or no understanding
  • Doesn’t engage in pretend play
  • Has an extremely short attention span (i.e., even for brief activities)
  • Shows frustration related to communication

Checklist

Please feel free to print off the following checklist and fill it out during observations of the particular child of interest. Please provide examples where you can, however this is not required. Adding examples can help when speaking to parents or speech pathologists!

All of these behaviours should be observed in a child at 4 years of age.

Communication Red Flags Ages 3-4

Make sure to check out our 'Practical Tips' and 'Who Can Help' tabs! 

 

4 - 5 years

What would you expect to see at this age?

Social Communication

  • Plays and cooperates with others
  • Shows interest in group activities
  • Plays purposefully

Receptive communication (Understanding)

  • Follows 3 stage commands with 6 linguistic elements (i.e. 3 verbs + 3 nouns)
    • Eg. “Put on your shoes, get your water bottle, and line up outside.”
  • Understands time-related words (eg. before/after, yesterday/tomorrow, now/later)
  • Starts developing pre-literacy skills such as recognising rhyming words and noticing that words can be broken into syllables. 
  • Begins to recognise some letters, sounds and numbers

Expressive communication (Producing) 

  • Produces 2,100-2,200 words
  • Speaks in grammatically correct sentences
  • Maintains longer conversations easily
  • Forms simple short stories with a clear beginning, middle and end
  • Uses appropriate tense (eg. past, present, future)

Speech

  • May have difficulty with “r” (e.g., saying “wed” for red), “v” (e.g., saying “berry” for very), and “th” (e.g., saying “fank you” for thank you)
  • Still developing use of consonant clusters (e.g., scribble and strawberry)
  • May not be able to say all the sounds correctly in longer words (e.g., caterpillar and spaghetti).
  • Some children may still produce “s” as “th” (e.g., a lisp) 

Red Flags

  • Doesn’t ask many questions
  • Difficulty forming sentences (eg. confused word order, deleted word endings)
  • Can’t retell a story
  • Can’t talk about the past and/or future
  • Can’t follow 3 stage instructions
  • Shows frustration related to communication (e.g. frustration when they are not understood, frustration when trying to explain something)

Checklist

Please feel free to print off the following checklist and fill it out during observations of the particular child of interest. Please provide examples where you can, however this is not required. Adding examples can help when speaking to parents or speech pathologists!

All of these behaviours should be observed in a child at 5 years of age.

Communication Red Flags Ages 4-5

Make sure to check out our 'Practical Tips' and 'Who Can Help' tabs! 

 

Communication Checklists

A collection of the Communication Checklists for each age group have been provided below.

Please feel free to print these off and use as needed.

0 to 1:

Communication Checklist 0 - 1

1 to 2:

Communication Checklist 1 - 2

2 to 3:

Communication Checklist 2 - 3

3 to 4:

Communication Checklist 3 - 4

4 to 5:

Communication Checklist 4 - 5

 

Search Content:
Speechcare Logo
UQ logo
© 2021 Speech Care Terms and Conditions of Use Privacy Policy Another Smartspace Website by Website WizLog In